The etiologies are often very complex and will be managed in an interdisciplinary way.

Let's mention the etiologies:

1. Dental.

2. Musculo-articular.

3. Morphological and bone.

4. Traumatism.

5. Linguinal.

6. Global dysfunction of the posture such as the pelvis (sacrum or ilium).

With regard to Osteopathy, it is necessary to make an overall and holistic assessment: craniosacral, mandibular, oral-fascial and lingual sphere, vertebral column, pelvis and visceral. Depending on the symptoms and dysfunctions the treatment will be oriented with a lot of precision.

Let’s recall some classic dysfunctions and their treatments.

1. Lingual dysfunction.

Treatment: lingual exercises.

2. Craniosacral dysfunction.

Treatment: Craniosacral osteopathy, membranous tension balance (Sutherland).

3. Functional defects of the sacrum and ilums.

Treatment: Mitchell, tension ligamentous balance.

4. Dental dysfunction.

Treatment: dentist and orthodontist.

5. Psychological troubles: psychologist.

6. Orofacial dysfunction with musculo-articular disorders.

Treatment: Manual Therapy fascial muscles, masticators, cervical, exercises of the tongue.

In general, the treatment is interdisciplinary.